Cities in poorer countries often lack basic  ______. Without it, they are unable to function properly as cities.

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A. structure

B. construction

C. infrastructure

D. condition


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Đáp án C

Kiến thức về từ vựng

A. structure (n): dự án công trình kiến trúc, cấu trúc

B. construction (n): sự xây dựng, cấu trúc

C. infrastructure (n): đk cơ sở hạ tầng

D.

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condition (n): điều kiện

Tạm dịch: Những thành phố ở những đất nước nghèo hơn thường xuyên thiếu điều kiện cơ sở hạ tầng căn bản. Không có điều đó, hồ hết nơi này sẽ không thể vận hành đúng mức tựa như những thành phố.

Cấu trúc khác bắt buộc lưu ý:

Be unable to do sth: cần yếu làm gì



Read the following passage and choose A, B, C, or D to lớn indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the following blanks. Fill in the appropriate word in question 34The growth of population has its problems as we shall see. As there are more và more mouths (31)_____, there comes a great strain (32)_____ the resources of a country; this is real in the case of developing countries with the result they are unable to push ahead economically. As food is not sufficient there is chronic...
Đọc tiếp

Read the following passage và choose A, B, C, or D khổng lồ indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the following blanks. Fill in the appropriate word in question 34

The growth of population has its problems as we shall see. As there are more and more mouths (31)_____, there comes a great strain (32)_____ the resources of a country; this is real in the case of developing countries with the result they are unable to lớn push ahead economically. As food is not sufficient there is chronic malnutrition in these countries especially in women và children resulting in weaker population (33)_____ would only economically be a drain on the country as their productive years will be short. As health và education are the State"s (34)_____, they affect the country"s finances. So in developing countries health and illiteracy continue khổng lồ be the problem. The unwieldy growth of population leads khổng lồ the problem of housing and sanitation. In many countries the slums are a (35)_____ to the eyes. Slums grow round big cities và are found with all the drawbacks. These are the areas of disease, filth & crime.

We often think of amenities such as chất lượng streets, squares, waterfronts, public buildings, and other well-designed public spaces as luxury amenities for affluent communities. However, research increasingly suggests that they are even more critical khổng lồ well-being of the poor và the development of their communities, who often bởi not have spacious homes and gardens lớn retreat to.

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Living in a confined room without adequate space and sunlight increases the likelihood of health problems, restricts interaction và other productive activities. Public spaces are the living rooms, gardens and corridors of urban areas. They serve to extend small living spaces và providing areas for social interaction & economic activities, which improves the development and desirability of a community. This increases productivity và attracts human capital while providing an improved unique of life as highlighted in the upcoming Urbanization in South Asia report.

Despite their importance, public spaces are often poorly integrated or neglected in planning và urban development. However, more và more research suggests that investing in them can create prosperous, livable, và equitable cities in developing countries. UN-Habitat has studied the contribution of streets as public spaces on the prosperity of cities, which finds a correlation between expansive street grids & prosperity as well as developing a public space toolkit.


The lack of provisions for public spaces hampers economic activities, pollutes the environment, and reduces social stability and security. Inexorable’urbanization & population growth further exacerbates this situation as growing pains in cities lượt thích Dhaka illustrate. Public spaces should be considered a basic service, with the same priority as transport, water and sanitation which communities often primarily focus their resources on.
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Refurbished streets và improved buildings in the Lahore’s Walled City, PakistanPublic Space as an Instrument of Urban TransformationWe have seen an increase in demand from client cities to enhance urban spaces as a part of their urban projects. Some of these requests have been included as a part of several operations across South Asian countries, and incorporated in recent World ngân hàng projects in cities including Colombo, Kandy và Galle in Sri Lanka as well as Chennai in India. Fortunately, there are notable examples of success from South Asia and beyond. The World Bank-assisted project of the Lahore Walled đô thị restored centuries-old streets and homes within the historic Walled city while improving infrastructure and streets. Families now enjoy a better chất lượng of life, businesses generate increased profits, and the community has a greater sense of participation in improving their lives. Another project under preparation for riverfronts along the Ganga in India will see their revitalization into vibrant public spaces, lớn improve local economic & cultural development. In Sri Lanka, the Strategic Cities Development Project seeks to make Kandy và Galle more pedestrian-oriented through public spaces after decades of car-oriented planning.  
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Public spaces - streets, squares, & a public libraryin Medellin, Colombia(Source: Photo from Future
Cape
Town)There are many sound examples outside of South Asia that the region can learn from. In Medellin, Colombia, the đô thị has successfully upgraded the urban environment of poor communities through the creating public spaces and promoting connectivity through the innovative use of cable cars lớn provide mobility for residents residing in slum areas. In Mostar, Botswana, the đô thị redesigned war-torn urban areas into vibrant public spaces khổng lồ remind the public of the devastation left by conflict and to promote reconciliation. This can potentially serve as examples for post-conflict environments in South Asia. In Cape Town, South Africa, the government has recently implemented a public space strategy khổng lồ provide urban public space in & around the đô thị on a larger scale. The bottom-up regeneration of Shanghai’s Tianzifang neighborhood has rejuvenated a historic alley, acting as a catalyst for city-wide urban regeneration to lớn transform the city & increase its cultural & economic vibrancy while increasing livability.Despite the numerous successful examples, the need for public spaces has not been given the attention that it deserves, in terms of policy and action in developing countries. Cities must recognize the role that quality public spaces can play in meeting the challenges of our rapidly urbanizing world.