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When it comes lớn solving problems & making tough decisions, people love plans (especially their own plans), so they make a lot of them. And because they want the perfect plan, they demand more data lớn help them.

Bạn đang xem: What i told her a few days ago were not the solution to most of her problems

Inevitably, though, this takes longer & longer, and instead of the goal being to reach a decision, the process of making the decision becomes the goal.

There may be studies, hearings and debates, but nothing actually gets done. This can go on for quite a while, depending on the nature of the decision ... All because everyone wants the perfect plan.

More often than not, it's impossible to know the results of a dynamic system in advance. So any kích hoạt is better than no action; it doesn't matter what you do, it just matters that you do, in order khổng lồ learn and move forward.

Smart leaders know that in order lớn solve any major problem, the goal should be lớn get quick feedback on whether that decision was a good one or not. If it wasn't, then they know to pivot & seek a different path.

Each decision informs the next. The path emerges from the doing.

The 4 types of problems we encounter daily

In 1999, while working at IBM, a guy named Dave Snowden came up with a way of looking at problems to help people know what kind of problem they are facing, & what kind of solution they should be looking for.

He calls it the Cynefin framework — cynefin is a Welsh word that means "habitat" — because you need khổng lồ know where you stand.

1. The simple problem

The first type of problem in Snowden's framework is simple and obvious. It has already been solved, và there actually is a best practice that works all the time.

Once you can determine that a problem is simple, you can apply a known recipe from your bag of tricks. If you're playing poker, never draw lớn an inside straight. A bank shouldn't make loans to people with X màn chơi of debt load.

With simple problems, the relationship between cause and effect is not only clear but obvious.

2. The complicated problem

This is the kind of problem where you have a known unknown. Take a giant oil company, for example: When geologists run a seismic survey khổng lồ learn where they could drill for oil, they know they don't know the answer, but they know how khổng lồ find it.

This is the domain name of the expert. Once you have ascertained that the problem is solvable, you can work out a solution, even if it turns out lớn be tricky. If you're knowledgeable enough, you can figure out cause và effect.

I always think of this when I bring my oto into the shop. It's making a weird noise & I'm worried. I know I don't know how to lớn address this problem, but I know that my mechanic knows, or can figure it out.

3. The complex problem

The third type of problem is complex, where you can only figure out afterward why what happened happened. Here you have lớn take some sort of kích hoạt to see what happens before you act again.

Most of us wrestle with complex problems. All the time. The answers aren't known, và all the forces aren't known. But we have to bởi something. & what happens will surprise us.

Let's examine the story of Twitch, a web service that allows people lớn stream themselves playing a video clip game so that other people can watch them bởi vì it. This isn't an obvious product except in retrospect. But Twitch is an incredible success story. Amazon acquired it for $970 million in 2014.

This company's first hàng hóa idea? A calendar that would integrate with Gmail. Of course, then Google came out with Google Calendar. So the company decided to lớn go into live-streaming.

One of the founders would stream his entire life, 24/7. Camera on head & a big backpack with a computer — constantly live. They built an incredibly fast live-streaming service that a lot of people could use at the same time. But as it turns out, no one really wanted to watch that live-stream.

So they opened the idea up. Maybe people wanted to lớn live-stream themselves? It really wasn't working in the marketplace, & they were running out of cash. Then, they noticed that a lot of people were watching live-streams of people playing video games. Weird.

But they went with that, và it turns out there is an avid audience of fans và recreational gamers who want lớn watch the đứng top players play. People can make a small fortune just playing clip games and streaming it for others lớn watch.

That's an extreme example of a solution khổng lồ a need that no one knew existed. But the problems we're facing today in business, politics & society are tough ones. Often we simply vị not know the solution. And sometimes we don't know how to even approach the solution.

So what you need to bởi is try something và then see what happens. Take the results of that và tweak what you're doing. Then try again. Tweak again. And let the solution emerge. That's all it is — a series of small experiments in short periods of time khổng lồ find a solution to lớn a complex problem.

4. The chaotic problem

The final type of problem in the Cynefin framework is chaotic. This is essentially a crisis.

Let's say there's a tsunami, or an oil rig blows up, or an uprising turns into a revolution, or there's a stock market crash. The first thing to vì chưng is khổng lồ take kích hoạt quickly, and begin lớn take steps to encapsulate the problem, lớn define its limits, to lớn bring it out of the chaotic & into the realm of the merely complex.

One example I use khổng lồ describe a chaotic problem is a riot. One night during the Arab Spring, I was in the middle of a crowd that decided to lớn storm the parliament building. This crowd of tens of thousands lurched as one toward the parliament gates.

Then screams broke out from one side and the whole crowd got chaotic. Everyone was running around unsure of what khổng lồ do, and they turned from individuals into a mob. I was standing in the middle of all this with a young American student I'd hired because she spoke Arabic. I told her — and I'll tell you — exactly what to vị in a riot.

First, don't panic. I can't emphasize how important that is. Blind fear is what gets people trampled and killed. Second, find something hard that can't easily be knocked over, like a lamppost. It's bizarre — the crowd will part around you like a river around a stone.

What you've done is pulled the chaotic into the complex. Take a minute. Breathe. Figure out what the escape routes are. You have that freedom now. You can't vì chưng anything when you're just another toàn thân being flung about, but if you can get out of the noise và fear, you can start to come up with a plan.

Here tốc độ matters. Delaying the decision will only worsen the problem. By rapidly iterating — trying something, seeing the response, trying again — you can ultimately succeed in bringing the crisis under control.

This trial-and-error approach can feel terrifying in the moment. But it's also an opportunity. New ways of doing things will emerge as people try lớn figure out how to work in an environment that didn't exist the day before.

J.J. Sutherland is the CEO of Scrum Inc., a consulting and training firm, author of "The Scrum Fieldbook" & co-author of the best-selling book "Scrum: The Art of Doing Twice the Work in Half the Time." Previously, he was an award-winning correspondent và producer for NPR. Follow J.J. On Linked

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Can I treat my bladder control problem myself?

Depending onthe type of urinary incontinence (UI) you have, your health care professional may recommend steps you can take on your own khổng lồ try to control your symptoms.

Make lifestyle changes

You may be able to lớn reduce leaks by making lifestyle changes.

Drink the right amount of liquid at the right time

Ask your health care professional whether you should drink less liquid during the day. However, don’t limit liquids lớn the point of becoming dehydrated. Your health care professional can tell you how much và when to drink, based on your health, activities, and local climate.

To limit nighttime trips to the bathroom, you may want khổng lồ stop drinking liquids a few hours before bedtime, but only if your health care professional suggests it. Limiting foods and drinks with caffeine, such as chocolate, tea, coffee, và carbonated beverages, may help reduce leaks. You should also limit alcoholic drinks, which can increase how much urineyour body makes.

The amount of urine a person should make is different for everyone, based on how much liquid you drink, how much you sweat, how much liquid you chiến bại by breathing, and the medicines you take.

Be physically active

Although you may not feel lượt thích being physically active when you have UI, regular physical activityis important for weight management & good overall health. Activities such as walking, swimming, biking, and dancing can improve your health. If you’re concerned about not having a bathroom nearby during physical activity, find a place with nearby restrooms, such as a shopping mall, community park, or local gym.

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You may be able lớn reduce leaks by being physically active và keeping a healthy weight.
Keep a healthy weight

Your chances of developing UI and other diseases, such as diabetes, are higher if you’re overweight or have obesity. Losing weight can help you have fewer leaks, và avoiding weight gain may prevent UI. Studies suggest that as your body mass index (BMI)increases, you’re more likely khổng lồ leak.4 If you’re overweight or have obesity, talk with your health care professional about how to thua weight.

Avoid constipation

Constipation can make urinary tracthealth worse và can lead to lớn UI. Talk with your health care professional about drinking more liquids and eating enough fiberto avoid constipation. Health care professionals use medicines called anticholinergics, tricyclic antidepressants, & beta-3 agonists khổng lồ treat UI, but they can cause constipation.

Stop smoking

If you smoke, get help lớn stop smoking. Quitting smoking at any age is good for your bladderhealth và overall health. Smoking raises your chances of developing bức xúc incontinence, because smoking causes chronic, or long-lasting, coughing. You might improve your UI if you’re able lớn stop coughing.5

Smoking also causes most cases of bladder cancer. Some people say smoking irritates their bladder.

Train your bladder

Bladder training is when you urinate on a schedule to reduce leaking. Your health care professional may use your bladder diary (PDF, 487.59 KB) khổng lồ suggest you use the bathroom on a regular schedule, called timed voiding. Gradually lengthening the time between trips to lớn the bathroom can help stretch your bladder so it can hold more urine. Record your daily bathroom habits so you và your health care professional can đánh giá your diary.

Do pelvic floor muscle exercises

Strong pelvic floor muscleshold in urine better than weak muscles. You can strengthen your pelvic floor muscles by doing Kegel exercises. These exercises involve tightening & relaxing the muscles that control urine flow. Researchers found that women who received pelvic floor muscle training had fewer leaks per day than women who didn’t receive training.6 You should not vì chưng pelvic floor exercises while you’re urinating.

Men can also benefit from pelvic floor muscle exercises. Strengthening these muscles may help a man leak urine less often, especially dribbling after urination.

A health care professional, such as a physical therapist trained in pelvic floor therapy, can help you get the most out of your Kegel exercises by helping you improve your bộ vi xử lý core muscle strength. Your bộ vi xử lý core includes your torso muscles, especially the lower back, pelvic floor muscles, and abdomen. These muscles keep your pelvis lined up with your spine, which helps with good posture and balance. Your physical therapist can show you how to bởi vì some exercises during daily activities, such as riding in a car or sitting at a desk.

You don’t need special equipment for Kegel exercises. However, if you are unsure whether you are doing the exercises correctly, you can learn how khổng lồ perform Kegel exercises properly by using biofeedback, electrical stimulation, or both. Biofeedback uses special sensors lớn measure muscle contractions that control urination.

Control your urge to lớn urinate

You may be able lớn control, or suppress, the strong urge to lớn urinate, which is called urge or urgency suppression. With this type of bladder training, you can worry less about finding a bathroom in a hurry. Some people distract themselves to take their minds off needing lớn urinate. Other people find that long, relaxing breaths or holding still can help. Doing pelvic floor exercises to lớn strengthen your pelvic floor also can help control the urge lớn urinate. Quick, strong squeezes of the pelvic floor muscles can help suppress urgency when it occurs, which may help you get khổng lồ the nhà vệ sinh before you leak.

How can my health care professional treat my bladder control problem?


If lifestyle changes don’t improve your urinary incontinence, speak with your health care professional about other options.

If lifestyle changes aren’t working for you, your health care professional may prescribe medicine, a medical device, a bulking agent, or—as a last resort—surgery to lớn help treat UI.


Urgency incontinence may be treated with one of the following medicines as a pill, liquid, or patch to lớn relax your bladder

beta-3 agonists tricyclic antidepressants

Health care professionals may use botulinum toxin A, also known as Botox, to lớn treat UI when other medicines or self-care treatments don’t work. Botox may be injected into your bladder. Injecting Botox into the bladder relaxes it, which makes more room for urine & lowers the chances of urine leaks.

In addition to lớn anticholinergics, men with UI who have an enlarged prostatemay also be prescribed

Medical devices


Individuals with overflow incontinencemay need khổng lồ use a catheterto empty their bladder. Your health care professional will teach you how lớn use a catheter. Proper hygiene is important for catheter use and to avoid a bladder infection.


Women may use a soft, plastic device called a pessary, which is inserted into the vagina for bao tay incontinence. The pessary presses against the wall of your vagina and the nearby urethra. The pressure helps hold up the urethra, so you have less leaking.

Another newer product to treat căng thẳng incontinence is a tampon-like disposable device that you can insert into your vagina for up lớn 12 hours at a time. The product expands khổng lồ push up against your urethra khổng lồ help decrease leaks.

Bulking agents

Gel or paste can be injected near your urinary sphincter to treat găng tay incontinence. The injected material bulks up the area around the urethra. The extra thickness helps close your bladder opening so you leak less.

Electrical nerve stimulation

If medicines and lifestyle changes don’t help your UI, your health care professional may suggest electrical nerve stimulation for urgency incontinence and other symptoms. Electrical nerve stimulation changes your bladder’s reflexes, using mild pulses of electricity khổng lồ stimulate the nerves that control the bladder và sphincter muscles.


Sling surgery

The most common surgery khổng lồ treat ức chế incontinence in women is sling surgery. In sling surgery for women, a surgeon works through the vagina lớn insert a strip of material between the vagina and urethra. The surgeon may choose to lớn use a synthetic mesh, a screen-like material that supports weakened or damaged tissue, or the surgeon may choose a biologic graft made from human or animal tissue.

Although sling surgery with synthetic mesh can be successful và safe, complications can occur in some women. Your health care professional can explain the risks & benefits of surgery for áp lực incontinence và what kind of results you can expect.

Stress incontinence in men can be treated with the male sling—a procedure in which mesh is placed under the urethra, lifting and supporting the urethra and sphincter muscles.

Artificial urinary sphincter

Stress incontinence in men can be treated by implanting an artificial urinary sphincter—a device that helps keep the urethra closed to prevent leaks.

Surgery khổng lồ remove a blockage

Overflow incontinence caused by a blockage or a narrowed urethra can be treated with surgery to remove the blockage.

Bladder outlet obstruction may occur in men who have an enlarged prostate. When other treatments don’t work well enough, your health care professional may suggest surgery, including minimally invasive surgery, khổng lồ remove enlarged prostate tissue or lớn widen the urethra.

Bladder enlargement, or bladder augmentation

If UI is caused by nerve damage, your health care professional may suggest surgery lớn make your bladder larger. This procedure may allow your bladder to store more urine but can make the bladder more difficult lớn empty, which may require you khổng lồ use a catheter to lớn empty your bladder.

Try lifestyle changes khổng lồ treat your bladder problem. If that doesn’t work, your health care professional may prescribe medicine, a medical device, or a bulking agent.

How can I cope with bladder control problems?

Protective products

Even after treatment, you may still leak urine from time to time. Certain products can help you cope with urine leaks

Absorbent, washable incontinence underwear. You can use underwear lined with special fabric that absorbs urine. Waterproof underwear. Waterproof underwear can protect your clothes from getting wet. Adult incontinence briefs. You can wear disposable incontinence briefs that act lượt thích diapers to keep your clothes dry. Pads. You can wear disposable pads in your underwear to absorb leaking urine. Large disposable pads. You can use large pads lớn protect chairs and beds from urine. Special skin cleaners và creams. Special skin cleaners và creams may keep the skin around the urethra from getting irritated. Creams can help block urine from your skin. Urine deodorizing tablets. Talk with your health care professional about whether taking urine deodorizing tablets by mouth can make your urine smell less strong. External catheters. An external catheter, used by men, can collect urine from a man’s body toàn thân and drain it into a bag that is attached to lớn the thigh with a strap.

Emotional support

Bladder control problems are common, yet many people feel too embarrassed lớn talk about them. At the very least, talk with your health care professional about your bladder problems. Your health care professional can help you connect with a support group for people with similar problems.

Consider speaking with your family and friends about your UI. Your family and friends may make it easier for you to lớn manage UI. In sharing your struggle, you may find that other people in your life have bladder problems as well.


<4> Gordon B, Shorter B, Isoldi KK, Moldwin RM. Obesity with comorbid bao tay urinary incontinence in women: a narrative review to inform dietetics practice. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition và Dietetics. 2017;117(6):889–907. Doi:10.1016/j.jand.2016.09.024

<5> French CL, Crawford SL, Bova C, Irwin RS. Change in psychological, physiological, and situational factors in adults after treatment of chronic cough. Chest. 2017;152(3):547–562. Doi:10.1016/j.chest.2017.06.024

<6> Angelini K. Pelvic floor muscle training lớn manage overactive bladder và urinary incontinence. Nursing for Women"s Health. 2017;21(1):51–57. Doi:10.1016/j.nwh.2016.12.004